Why Matter Matters
Why Matter Matters. Thoughts from NASA on the makeup of our universe.
Why in the world (or universe) am I posting an article from NASA on the makeup of the universe in the spiritual section of Great Past 60? Because some things are true whether we believe them or not. Let me share a little story to illustrate this point.
My Personal Journey
I was raised a Christian. My Grandfather was a Methodist Minister, My parents are very devout Christians, and even my Uncle and cousin were Pastors. I read the Bible cover to cover several times, went to church, and studied Christianity at home.
In spite of all this, while professing to be a Christian, I just didn’t believe it in my core. As a matter of fact, I was resentful that I didn’t and everybody else around me did.
So when I went to College, I decided to take a minor in Physics to learn the truth, one way or another. Being that I went to a liberal school in California, the Professors all appeared to be atheists.
We were taught back then, that everything was made of matter (atoms) and that was 100% of reality. Of course, this definition left no room for God or a spiritual life of any kind. As a result, I spent most of my adult life not believing in God.
The College of Life
Then some friends died and some things happened that I just couldn’t explain OR DENY! My whole life believing in the atom was turned upside down. Excuse the pun, but I knew something was the MATTER.
So I turned back to the books and my Parents. I read over 80 books on the subject and had a huge awakening. After so many nights of reading, I guess you could call this the study of ATOM and EVE’s. OK, that was bad.
Since my college days, there have been some MAJOR breakthroughs in physics proved just how incredibly ignorant I had been.
First of all, what was once 100% of my reality, (matter) turns out to be only 5% of reality. Dark matter is 26% and dark energy makes up the other 69% This shocked me as we didn’t even know it existed in my college days.
It’s like it is raining outside and somebody tells me it is raining. When I went into my building, there wasn’t a cloud in the sky, so I don’t believe them. UNTIL I SEE IT WITH MY OWN EYES! That doesn’t mean it wasn’t true when I couldn’t see it. It simply means I was ignorant to the truth.
The fact that 95% of our universe can’t be seen and is not understood, and the unexplainable events I had experienced, gives me undeniable proof that there actually is a life after this one as I was taught in my youth.
The Dead are Talking
There have been over 8 Million people who have died, and come back to life. When interviewed, they all have a very similar story. They say that the universe was connected by light and love. Now how can this be a coincidence?
I personally have spoken with over 100 of those 8 Million people. I now know with all my heart (just like I yearned for as a child) that God exists, and there is a really cool adventure awaiting us after this short life. When you know where you are going, you can live a life free from fear. It really is the greatest gift I have ever received.
Your Own Journey
I will say this: This is a story of my own personal journey to find God. You can’t just have that unshakable belief based on what somebody else says. You need to figure it out on your own. Of course, you will need to listen, read, and study your mentors and teachers, but you must walk your own road to belief.
The good news is, when you learn how to listen with gratitude, love and humility, you will find you are not walking that road alone! Thank you God!
Dark Energy, Dark Matter
In the early 1990s, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the universe had to slow.
The universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today.
So the expansion of the universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it.
Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein’s theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a “cosmological constant.” Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space.
Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein’s theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don’t know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy.
What Is Dark Energy?
More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe’s expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest – everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter – adds up to less than 5% of the universe.
Come to think of it, maybe it shouldn’t be called “normal” matter at all, since it is such a small fraction of the universe.
Universe Dark Energy-1 Expanding UniverseThis diagram reveals changes in the rate of expansion since the universe’s birth 15 billion years ago. The more shallow the curve, the faster the rate of expansion. The curve changes noticeably about 7.5 billion years ago, when objects in the universe began flying apart as a faster rate. Astronomers theorize that the faster expansion rate is due to a mysterious, dark force that is pulling galaxies apart.Credit: NASA/STSci/Ann Feild
One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing. Space has amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence.
The Gravity of the Situation
Then one version of Einstein’s gravity theory, the version that contains a cosmological constant, makes a second prediction: “empty space” can possess its own energy. Because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as space expands. As more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would appear.
As a result, this form of energy would cause the universe to expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should even be there, much less why it would have exactly the right value to cause the observed acceleration of the universe.
Dark Matter Core Defies ExplanationThis image shows the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and hot gas in the core of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 520. The result could present a challenge to basic theories of dark matter.
Another explanation for how space acquires energy comes from the quantum theory of matter. In this theory, “empty space” is actually full of temporary (“virtual”) particles that continually form and then disappear. But when physicists tried to calculate how much energy this would give empty space, the answer came out wrong – wrong by a lot. The number came out 10120 times too big. That’s a 1 with 120 zeros after it. It’s hard to get an answer that bad. So the mystery continues.
Another explanation for dark energy is that it is a new kind of dynamical energy fluid or field, something that fills all of space but something whose effect on the expansion of the universe is the opposite of that of matter and normal energy. Some theorists have named this “quintessence,” after the fifth element of the Greek philosophers. But, if quintessence is the answer, we still don’t know what it is like, what it interacts with, or why it exists. So the mystery continues.
A last possibility is that Einstein’s theory of gravity is not correct. That would not only affect the expansion of the universe, but it would also affect the way that normal matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies behaved. This fact would provide a way to decide if the solution to the dark energy problem is a new gravity theory or not: we could observe how galaxies come together in clusters.
But if it does turn out that a new theory of gravity is needed, what kind of theory would it be? How could it correctly describe the motion of the bodies in the Solar System, as Einstein’s theory is known to do, and still give us the different prediction for the universe that we need? There are candidate theories, but none are compelling. So the mystery continues.
The thing that is needed to decide between dark energy possibilities – a property of space, a new dynamic fluid, or a new theory of gravity – is more data, better data.
What Is Dark Matter?
By fitting a theoretical model of the composition of the universe to the combined set of cosmological observations, scientists have come up with the composition that we described above, ~68% dark energy, ~27% dark matter, ~5% normal matter. What is dark matter?
We are much more certain what dark matter is not than we are what it is. First, it is dark, meaning that it is not in the form of stars and planets that we see. Observations show that there is far too little visible matter in the universe to make up the 27% required by the observations.
Second, it is not in the form of dark clouds of normal matter, matter made up of particles called baryons. We know this because we would be able to detect baryonic clouds by their absorption of radiation passing through them.
Third, dark matter is not antimatter, because we do not see the unique gamma rays that are produced when antimatter annihilates with matter.
Finally, we can rule out large galaxy-sized black holes on the basis of how many gravitational lenses we see. High concentrations of matter bend light passing near them from objects further away, but we do not see enough lensing events to suggest that such objects to make up the required 25% dark matter contribution.
Abell 2744: Pandora’s Cluster RevealedOne of the most complicated and dramatic collisions between galaxy clusters ever seen is captured in this new composite image of Abell 2744. The blue shows a map of the total mass concentration (mostly dark matter).
However, at this point, there are still a few dark matter possibilities that are viable. Baryonic matter could still make up the dark matter if it were all tied up in brown dwarfs or in small, dense chunks of heavy elements. These possibilities are known as massive compact halo objects, or “MACHOs“. But the most common view is that dark matter is not baryonic at all, but that it is made up of other, more exotic particles like axions or WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).
|June 3, 2019||Heart of Lonesome Galaxy is Brimming with Dark Matter (Markarian 1216)|
|January 29, 2019||Astronomers Find Dark Energy May Vary Over Time|
|December 20, 2018||Faint Glow Within Galaxy Clusters Illuminates Dark Matter|
|July 17, 2018||From an Almost Perfect Universe to the Best of Both Worlds|
|June 20, 2018||XMM-Newton Finds Missing Intergalactic Material|
|April 18, 2018||Where is the Universe’s Missing Matter?|
|March 28, 2018||Dark Matter Goes Missing in Oddball Galaxy|
Thank you for reading. Great Past 60